The earliest Japanese communities in the Philippines at the time of Spanish colonization can be identified as living in the Cagayan region, in the early s. This was the first confrontation between the Japanese and the Spanish.
The Japanese then returned to the Philippines until This port continued to operate during the 16th and early 17th centuries. One of these Japanese men was a Christian who had been baptized with the name Pablo, and, after showing them a Christian icon, he asked the Spaniard for a rosary.
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After , with the opening of the Macao—Manila trade route, many other Japanese, hailing from Macao, started to arrive at Manila. The beginning of the relationship between the Spanish authorities and the Japanese community in Manila was marked by suspicion. In , another vessel, owned by Hirado merchants, arrived in Manila; yet its crew was only allowed to sell their merchandise and was obliged to return to Japan.
He said that, in , the number of Japanese living in Manila had reached In , the San Felipe , while traveling from Acapulco bound for Manila, sank off the coast of Japan; its cargo was confiscated and, as a result of the conflict, several Christians were executed in Nagasaki. Consequently, as retaliation by the Spanish authorities, expelled from Manila many Japanese and the settlement became reduced to only people. In , a massive earthquake struck Manila and strong aftershocks ensued in the following year. The high number of victims and poor hygiene led to a contagious disease affecting the entire city.
At the beginning of the 17th century, the Japanese population was estimated by some at around people, who remained in the Philippines for a short time before returning to Japan; it was believed that their contentious character led to only a few of them remaining in Manila. Other estimates suggest Japanese. This census was completed and handed over to the governor. It showed the name, profession, and age of each Japanese.
Unfortunately, it has not survived to modern times. In , the community comprised almost people, reaching in This oscillation in population estimates shows that it is difficult to accurately assess the demographic dimension of the Japanese community in the Philippines. Moreover, it was natural that in the second decade of the 17th century there was a sudden increase in the number of Japanese in Manila due to the private trade carried out not only between the Japanese and the Spanish, but, more so, between Europeans from Nagasaki and the Philippines, and, in parallel, the spread of Japanese Christians to the Philippines and Macao.
Virreinal, caja-exp. II, pp. In , Japanese authorities refused to receive a delegation sent by Governor Alonso Fajardo de Tenza — This is the formally accepted date for the interruption of the relations between the Spanish from the Philippines and Japan. However, despite these prohibitions, the flow of Japanese to Manila continued throughout the 17th century, via vessels directly or indirectly arriving in the Philippines. Nevertheless, the Japanese population gradually declined between and , with part of it assimilated by the multicultural society of the Philippines and part settled in other regions of Southeast Asia.
As in the case of Macao, the Japanese in the Philippines can be found in all social and professional strata. In , the number of resident Japanese merchants living in Manila was very high, sparking fears that they might collaborate in an attempted invasion by Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Some Japanese carried weapons, although they had to obtain a special license, approved by the government of Manila, and restricted to a specific purpose. Besides trade, military activity was one of the main professions of the Japanese in the Philippines. As in Macao, in the Philippines a large number of Japanese worked at the ports.
In Cavite, in , the chief of the workers at this port was Vicente Famanda. Fifty-five Japanese worked under him between 23 August and 23 October, paid pesos each. In the same port, another group of 60 Japanese worked for 43 days hauling artillery to ships. Some individual cases are also worth mentioning. The position of interpreter, an essential job for communication between Japanese and Spanish, was also filled by some Japanese.
The Establishment of Japanese in Macao and Their Professional Occupations
Although we do not have much information on the daily lives of Japanese domestic slaves, there were indeed some particular cases of violence. Other Japanese domestic slaves remained for only a short time in the Philippines, being sold to far-flung places like the American continent. After Manila, he traveled to Mexico in , where he was sold again. Females of Japanese origin in the Philippines may have been in a minority, but they were still quite a diverse group. In the 17th century it is possible to identify 14 women who were exclusively engaged in commerce in Manila Dilao , Bagumbaya, and Cavite.
These licenses were registered after the interruption of official trade relations between the Philippines and Japan. Besides their involvement in the commercial sector, some such women were also able to rise up in Philippine society. This member of the Philippine led a Christian life, as she attended church frequently. In , she accused Friar Miguel de San Juan of having tried to abuse her sexually, asking her in the confessional if she slept with her husband and, soon after, going to her house to try to have sexual intercourse with her.
Her testimony can be found in Mexico. However, we do not know the outcome of this case. Besides the aforementioned Japanese free women, many slaves were also living in the Philippines, about whom not much is known. Madalena was married to the slave Martim de Melo, who served in the same house and died before Maria Xapona, a year-old who sued her owner, declaring that she had been illegally enslaved, had worked in the same household.
The only prediction she got wrong was one about a black slave on the run: she stated that he was in the Philippines and had not departed for Japan or Malacca, and that he would return to his former owner, something that did not happen.
Chocolate E' Chuva (Portuguese Edition)
In the s, fewer and fewer Japanese arrived at the Philippines, except in , when two Nagasaki boats were sent to Manila with lepers on board, as reported by Governor Juan Nino de Tavora — What the Spanish did not know was that this act was carried out by the Governor of Nagasaki himself. Governor Tavora held a state council in Manila to discuss whether the city would accept the lepers. The answer was positive. Franciscan clerics took care of the lepers in a hospital near the Convent of the Order of Saint Francis, while an established amount of pesos in alms was paid annually by the city.
Meaning of "reboleta" in the Portuguese dictionary
The surviving documents attest that in , , , , and the sum provided for the leper care was 50 pesos per year. The ever-changing number of residents would also be directly related to the troubled relationship between the government of the Philippines and that of Japan. The city of Goa had become an important center of Portuguese commerce in India since its conquest in The slave trade was also an important feature of local society. Around the Direita Street slave market it was also possible to find a great number of slaves who were not for sale.
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The money they earned was given to their owners. Diogo returned to de Faria after some time. A doubt about his nationality persists, as he could have been either Japanese or Chinese. Curiously, de Faria only states Hompeo was Chinese, which leads us to speculate that Diogo was probably Japanese. The annual letter of the Province of India, written in Goa by Francisco Cabral, on 15 November , mentions the episode concerning three Japanese slaves who escaped from their Portuguese owner.
Two of them converted to Islam. After several attempts, the two slaves due to the mediation of a priest, risked death by returned to Goa and presented themselves before the Inquisition, admitting their wrongdoing. The repentant Japanese were forgiven and returned to their owner. One of the passages on Japanese slave trade mentions six Japanese who had been released by a Jesuit. The same text reveals that Japanese women were sold for very high prices:.
Six people, four Japanese women, and two men, became free thanks to one of ours; and three Japanese girls, who have been sold for a very high price, were freed by the same merchants, who let them free. He brought three slaves back with him: a Japanese, a Korean, and an African from Mozambique. This informed him of the large number of Japanese slaves in the State of India and presented reasons that supported such slavery. This dispute involving the Society of Jesus, the monarch, and the citizens under Goan leading citizens, ended in , when King Philip III compelled the Viceroy, following instructions in a letter sent to India on 6 March , to publish a law against slavery in the city on 18 and 27 January.
For example, in , Mocquet describes the fate of a female slave in Goa. Japanese presence in India can also be identified in places other than Goa. Some of these are likely to have been acquired by the Dutch in Japan or arrived in Goa via the Portuguese commercial network but then succeeded in gaining their freedom or escaping.
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As for Cock, we know only that he was from Japan. While the first has a connection with the Portuguese through both his first and last name, the second does not, so is likely to have been originally acquired by the Dutch. They are the only ones whose profession is not revealed. However, we know that Miaco received a monthly salary of 10 guilders , whereas Cock only received 5. On this list of 18 people, he is 12th, with a lower salary of 9 guilders , and his rank is designated as soldier, which means that he was a mercenary hired by the trading post to protect it. The importance of Japanese mercenaries in the expansion and maintenance of the Habsburg territories remains an unknown chapter in the history of Asia.
This section seeks to recover this topic through the compilation of documents describing their presence in the Philippines, Macao, Goa, and Malacca, the main centers of Iberian presence in Asia in the 16th and 17th centuries. The first information we have about the participation of Japanese mercenaries in the Philippines dates back to , when the Spanish military intervened to pacify the province of Cagayan, north of the island of Luzon.
The Spanish authorities estimated that the hiring of Japanese mercenaries would cost , pesos. The Spanish authorities also used such mercenaries in , to suppress a Sangley Chinese rebellion in Manila. Simultaneously, another fleet composed of Spaniards and Japanese and Pampango Indians protected Manila from a Dutch attack.
At the same time, the relationship between Spanish and Japanese authorities in Manila was deteriorating, as some groups of mercenaries were employed by Dutch fleets, as happened in , and in In , Miguel de Silva became leader. There is more information on Japanese mercenaries serving the Spaniards in Although we do not have specific references to any Japanese, it is very likely they were included on this trip. Through this measure, it can be argued that it is likely a large part of the Japanese community in China was composed of mercenaries and soldier-slaves.
As for free mercenaries, in case of non-compliance, they would be confined to spend ten years exiled in the galleys.